Bhubaneswar, derived its name from Tribhubaneswar, which literally means the Lord (Eeswar) of the Three World (Tribhuban), which refers to Shiva .
It was the ancient capital of Kalinga, and Dhauli near Bhubaneswar is the place where the famous battle was fought between Emperor Ashoka and the Kalinga army, after which Ashoka followed Buddhism.
Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital in 1948, the year after India gained its independence from Britain.
Bhubaneswar has been known by names such as Toshali, Kalinga Nagari, Nagar Kalinga, Chakra Kshetra, Ekamra Kanan, Ekamra Kshetra and Mandira Malini Nagari (“City of Temples”). It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and religious importance in Eastern India.
The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India’s first planned cities.
Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a ‘Temple City of India’ and with Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja (“Golden Triangle”), one of eastern India’s most visited destinations.
Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the ‘twin cities of Odisha and are one of the famous twin cities of the country.
Bhubaneswar is an emerging information technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country’s fastest-developing cities.
Bhubaneswar’s first mention was during the Kalinga War, which took place near Dhauli (now in the south of the city) in the 3rd century BCE. Later Emperor Kharavela established his capital at Sisupalgarh, on the outskirts of the modern city.
The city is bounded by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east, the Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary and Nandankanan Zoo lie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively.